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Lightning and Aircraft

Lightning

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimates that lightning hits each airliner or commercial aircraft in U.S. service once a year. Most lightning strikes go unnoticed by the passengers on the flight. It’s the passengers of the aircraft’s next scheduled flight that are usually impacted because an inspection of the aircraft must be performed before it can fly again.

The skin of the aircraft cabin and interior compartments as well as the airframe are designed to conduct up to 200,000 amperes of electrical current. Lightning usually strikes extremities such as the aircraft nose or wing tips and exits out of the tail or other wingtip. The design keeps the electricity/lightning away from the crew, passengers and all the electronic equipment.

Pilot’s do their very best to avoid thunderstorms but not so much for the lightning. They are more concerned about the extreme turbulence and hailstones which could break windshields and damage the aircraft.

Lightning around aircraft has caused some fatalities. The last U.S. aircraft lightning strike to cause a crash was on December 8, 1963. It was a Pan Am Boeing 707 that was struck while flying over Elkton, MD. According to investigators jet fuel vapor in a wing tank was ignited and exploded. All 73 passengers and crew died.

Today, there is more concern about lightning strikes while the aircraft is on the ground. Ground crews performing maintenance, guiding aircraft, refueling, and baggage handling are exposed to potential lightning strikes during a storm. Passengers not covered by an enclosed jet way are also at risk.

Click on this link to see a photograph of a plane taking off that was immediately struck by a flash of lightning.

 

Resources

http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20161004-why-lightning-strikes-dont-harm-the-planes-we-fly-in

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/capital-weather-gang/wp/2014/08/27/why-is-an-airplane-safe-from-lighting-strikes/?utm_term=.22b71575e37c

http://faa.einnews.com/article/372683673/ht9h3Ff0ID7m0TGP?lcf=O_ZmKG5BBH9wyvALM0QGYCReRgNjVHY71zqYXIQIPpPGd0W4yMMVXNPS1sKa3YeC

 

3 Comments

  1. BobbyG says:

    A little mistake taken by a lot of people is that the aircraft during normal flight will gather an electrical charge; like when a person walks across a carpeted floor and touches a doorknob and gets shocked. So to compensate for this airplanes are made with static wicks on them to discharge this into the air. This being said when an aircraft is struck by lightning it also tries to leave the aircraft at these same points usually causing damage. Sometimes the discharge is in an area where the air temperature is a little warmer than the surrounding air; IE; windows that leak a small amount of air, Doors, engines, Behind static ports and Pitot tubes. Any damage noted will have to be repaired prior to further passenger flight.

    • Hi Bobby,
      Thanks for your insight.

    • les mutchie says:

      Your larger aircraft and military aircraft have specific (specials) inspections required of the aircraft when exposed to, suspected, witnessed lightning strike conditions have occurred. Usually you can walk around the aircraft observing the static wicks, bonding straps, and/or tie-down points and make the proper call. …….. been there, done it…… Maintainers usually end up more familiar with the post=indications on the structure than flight crew……. more eyes the better though. Ground strikes seem to do the most damage, Ive observed vaporized tail-caps and holes blown through flaps just sitting on the ground. While your bonding and grounding systems are good for electronics and general noise, they are their best providing the Farraday cage that keeps lightning from taking a more disastrous route through wiring/systems/personnel/fuel tanks, when properly installed and maintained.

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